South African’s National Liberation Movement

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All-In African Conference

25 - 26 March 1961

Chief Lutuli and other ANC leaders convened a Consultative Conference of African Leaders in Orlando, Johannesburg, in December 1960, to consider united action following the banning of the ANC and PAC and several months of a state of emergency, as well as a whites-only referendum on declaring a Republic. The Consultative Conference decided to call an All-in Conference and set up a Continuation Committee.

The All-in African Conference, held in Pietermaritzburg on 25-26 March 1961, was attended by 1,398 delegates from all over the country, though the government had arrested a majority of members of the Continuation Committee and took other measures to hinder the conference.

The government rejected the demand of the Conference for a representative national convention to prepare a non-racial democratic constitution, and used massive show of force to suppress protests against the Republic in May, thereby precipitating a prolonged conflict.